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Learn Carnatic Flute | Intermediate Level | Varnams Vol – 12


Varṇam is a sort of composition within the Carnatic music system consisting of quick metric items which encapsulate the principle options (patterns of notes) of a raga.Varnams seize the raga bhavam, ranjaka prayogas visesha sancharas, and many others. Dhatu and Janta prayogas (phrase utilization) are normally a part of a Varnam. Understanding of those points is essential to creating manodharma sangeetham ( ie., improvisation points of Carnatic music resembling raga aalapana, swara kalpana, neraval and many others )

Identified for his or her advanced construction, varnams are a elementary type in Carnatic music.All varnams include lyrics,in addition to swara passages, together with a pallavi, an anupallavi, muktaayi swaras, a charanam, and chittaswaras. There are various kinds of varnams, resembling taana varnam, pada varnam, daru varnam and ragamalika varnam. Additionally they come totally different taalams (beat cycles). Although the most well-liked varnams are in Aadi and Ata taalas, there are a variety of varnams in different talas as properly (e.g., jampa tala, triputa tala, matya talam, roopaka talam, and many others).

Thought of as most likely probably the most advanced type in Carnatic music, varnams play a big position in Carnatic music. A varnam is historically carried out as a gap merchandise by musicians in Carnatic music live shows to behave as heat-up for the musicians,or as a centre principal piece in Bharatanatyam dance live shows. As a basis to Carnatic music,varnams are additionally practised as vocal workouts by performers of Carnatic music, to assist develop voice tradition, and preserve correct pitch and management of rhythm. The melodic patterns in a varnam are thought of to be attribute patterns of a selected raga.

Varieties of varnams

Named for its tanam-like rhythmic qualities, tana varnams solely have lyrics for the pallavi, anupallavi and charanam.

With rhythmic parts like a padam, pada varnams are typically sung to accompany South Indian classical dance, together with bharatanatyam.In contrast to the tana varnam which solely has lyrics for the pallavi, anupallavi and charanam and swaras for the remainder of the sections a pada varnam even have lyrics that correspond to the muktaayi and chitta swaras of the varnam, so typically, pada varnams comprise extra lyrical content material than a tana varnam.The swaras in one of these varnam are appropriate for intricate footwork.Padajathi varnams are merely pada varnams that additionally comprise jatis in it, making it once more extra appropriate for South Indian classical dance.

Contents of a varnam

The identify “varnam” (that means “letter”) was doubtless given to this type of tune because of the prevalence of swara letters in one of these composition.

Lyrical content material of varnams are generally both devotional or amorous.

The varnam is subdivided into a number of sections:

  • Pallavi: The primary part of the Varnam, sung with lyrics or sahitya.

  • Anupallavi: A type of recapitulation, sung with lyrics or sahitya additionally.

  • Muktaayi: Sung fully with syllables—or swaras — (like s (sa) r (Ri) g(ga) m(ma) p (pa) d(da) n(ni) (sa)(That is the upper model of the traditional one). In Pada Varnas it is named Muktaayi Swara-Sahitya.

  • Charanam: Sung with lyrics

  • Chitta Swara or Ettugadda Swaram: Sung fully with syllables. In a Pada varnam, there are lyrics which correspond to the Charanam swaras. The swaras happen in a number of teams or stanzas.

  • Anubandham: epilogue to the Varnam. Some varnams have this extra half that follows the charanam and chitta(Ettugadda) swaras, that’s sung with lyrics or sahitya thus main again to the muktaayi(Chitta) swara or the primary pallavi line itself. It’s discovered extra typically with very previous Varnams and it’s much less prevalent within the newer varnams. In trendy instances, some previous varnams are even sung partially, by omitting the anubandham half. Probably the most classical instance of that is the Viribhoni varnam in Bhairavi, which is sung after omitting certainly one of its chitta swaras and the anubandham.

Varnams are historically rendered in a format that consists of Pallavi, Anupallavi and Chitta Swaram (Mukthayi Swaram) being sung first in a comparatively gradual tempo and repeated instantly after in double the velocity. The remainder of the composition (Charanam onwards) is sung in a ‘madhyama kala’ or roughly 1.5 instances the velocity used firstly. Every swara passage is sung, adopted by the lyrics of the charanam. Some performers don’t comply with this although, preferring to sing your complete composition in ‘madhyama kala’ or comparatively quick tempo.

Varnams are typically sung in two kinds of talas, or metric methods, Adi Tala (8 beat cycle) and Ata Tala (14 beat cycle), the place Ata Tala varnams are typically extra sophisticated and superior. In many of the Adi Tala Varnams the tala is positioned within the 2 kalai model. So subsequently every beat and finger depend is positioned twice.

Well-known varnams

Adi Tala Varnams embrace :

  • “Sami Ninne” in Shree ragam composed by Karur Devudu Iyer in Telugu

  • “Ninnukori” in Mohanam ragam by Poochi Srinivasa Iyengar in Telugu

  • “Evvari Bodhana” in Abhogi ragam by Patnam Subramania Iyer in Telugu

  • “Period Naapai” in Todi raagam by Patnam Subramania Iyer in Telugu

  • “Valachi Vacchi” in Navaraagamalika in Telugu (9 ragas, just like Ragamalika which accurately interprets to a garland of ragams

Ata Tala Varnams embrace:

  • “Viriboni” in Bhairavi ragam by Pacchimiriam Adiyappa in Telugu

  • “Nera Nammiti” in Kaanada raagam by Poochi Srinivasa Iyengar in Telugu

  • “Chalamela” in Sankarabharanam by Swati Tirunal in Telugu

The Arabhi ragam varnam is meant to be the one longest piece with jantai and dhattu prayogas.

The “Mathe Malayadhwaja” by Harikesanalloor Mutthiah Bhasgavatar is a singular Varnam as a result of the Chitta swara has two various kinds of saahitya organized in accordance with it. The primary is a rhythmic poetry describing the king and has the Raaja mudra and the second is a lilting Solkattu swara which could be very properly embodied in expression by bharatanatyam dancers




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